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SEC Filings

10-Q
CHARTER COMMUNICATIONS, INC. /MO/ filed this Form 10-Q on 08/09/2016
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Income tax benefit (expense). We recognized an income tax benefit of $3.2 billion for both the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and income tax expense of $35 million and $70 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively. Certain of the deferred tax liabilities that were assumed in connection with the closing of the TWC Transaction will reverse and provide a source of future taxable income, resulting in a reduction of substantially all of Legacy Charter’s preexisting valuation allowance associated with its deferred tax assets of approximately $3.3 billion. Such release of Legacy Charter’s valuation allowance was recognized directly to income tax benefit in the consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. The tax provision in future periods will vary based on current and future temporary differences, as well as future operating results. For more information, see Note 14 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements contained in “Item 1. Financial Statements.”

Income tax expense in 2015 was recognized primarily through increases in deferred tax liabilities related to Legacy Charter’s franchises, which are characterized as indefinite lived for book financial reporting purposes, as well as, to a lesser extent, through current federal and state income tax expense. Current federal and state income tax expense included $12 million and $3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and $13 million and $4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. 

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest. Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest for financial reporting purposes represents A/N's portion of Charter Holdings' net income based on its effective common unit ownership interest of approximately 10% and on the preferred dividend of $18 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. For more information, see Note 9 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements contained in “Item 1. Financial Statements.”

Net income (loss) attributable to Charter shareholders. Net income attributable to Charter shareholders increased from a net loss of $122 million for the three months ended June 30, 2015 to net income of $3.1 billion for the three months ended June 30, 2016, and increased from a net loss of $203 million for the six months ended June 30, 2015 to net income of $2.9 billion for the six months ended June 30, 2016 primarily as a result of the factors described above. On a pro forma basis, assuming the Transactions occurred as of January 1, 2015, net income attributable to Charter shareholders increased from $107 million for the three months ended June 30, 2015 to $280 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016, and increased from $157 million for the six months ended June 30, 2015 to $525 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016.

Use of Adjusted EBITDA and Free Cash Flow

We use certain measures that are not defined by U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") to evaluate various aspects of our business. Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow are non-GAAP financial measures and should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, consolidated net income (loss) and net cash flows from operating activities reported in accordance with GAAP. These terms, as defined by us, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow are reconciled to consolidated net income (loss) and net cash flows from operating activities, respectively, below.

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as consolidated net income (loss) plus net interest expense, income tax (benefit) expense, depreciation and amortization, stock compensation expense, loss on extinguishment of debt, (gain) loss on financial instruments, other expense, net and other operating expenses, such as merger and restructuring costs, other pension benefits, special charges and (gain) loss on sale or retirement of assets. As such, it eliminates the significant non-cash depreciation and amortization expense that results from the capital-intensive nature of our businesses as well as other non-cash or special items, and is unaffected by our capital structure or investment activities. However, this measure is limited in that it does not reflect the periodic costs of certain capitalized tangible and intangible assets used in generating revenues and our cash cost of financing. These costs are evaluated through other financial measures.

Free cash flow is defined as net cash flows from operating activities, less capital expenditures and changes in accrued expenses related to capital expenditures.

Management and Charter's board of directors use Adjusted EBITDA and free cash flow to assess Charter's performance and its ability to service its debt, fund operations and make additional investments with internally generated funds. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA generally correlates to the leverage ratio calculation under our credit facilities or outstanding notes to determine compliance with the covenants contained in the facilities and notes (all such documents have been previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC")). For the purpose of calculating compliance with leverage covenants, we use Adjusted EBITDA, as presented, excluding certain expenses paid by our operating subsidiaries to other Charter entities. Our debt covenants refer to these expenses as management fees, which were $202 million and $76 million for the three months ended


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